8After this view, the planned democratic peace is considered universal and achievable, provided that certain “peaceful” methods and techniques are implemented effectively. The general agreement on the means and techniques and objectives of peace-building would then lead to a “consensus” among the world`s leading players on the idea and practice of peace-building. Among the techniques, methods and technologies agreed upon by these actors are conflict prevention, mediation, peacekeeping and peacekeeping, humanitarian assistance and conflict resolution (Richmond, 2004). The general consensus on these methods thus reflects a discourse and practices that project peace-building as a “building of liberal democracy with a free market and a globalized economy, progressive development strategies and guaranteed human rights” (Ibidem: 131-132).2 1.4. Strengthening the political dialogue for the peace agreements 30The influence of liberal peace can be seen in different forums. The mandates of the appointed bodies and bodies, for example, for peace-building in Guinea-Bissau make a clear link between the emphasis placed on activities related to the promotion of democracy and the achievement of peace, reflecting one of the key ideas of the liberal paradigm for peace. The mandates of UNOGBIS and, later, UNIOGBIS, to explicitly reflect this formulation, since they refer to the need to “create an environment conducive to peacemaking and consolidation, democracy and the rule of law and the holding of free and transparent elections” (S/1999/232, 1), or to “strengthen the capacity of national institutions to maintain constitutional order, public security and full respect for the rule of law” (S/RES/1876, p. 3 ter). 16The first multilateral reactions to the armed conflict came from ECOWAS and the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries (CPLP), which succeeded in negotiating a peace agreement between Nino Vieira and Mane, signed in Abuja, Nigeria, in August 1998.
As part of the agreement, Nino Vieira and Mane reaffirmed the ceasefire reached a few days earlier and agreed to the total withdrawal of all foreign forces from the country and the holding of general and presidential elections until March 1999 (S/1998/1028). The agreement also provided for the dispatch of an ECOWAS interposition force, made available by its monitoring group (ECOMOG, monitoring group of the Economic Community of West African States). It should be noted that this force was not led by the United Nations, but by a sub-regional organization, and that it would not be approved until later by the United Nations Security Council (S/RES/1216).